Afforestation starts with production of seedlings in tree nurseries, nurseries that are operated by the local agricultural office, by women associations, youth organizations, or by private people. In autumn of each year, preparation work begins (prepare seed beds, mixing soil, production of shading, etc.) and starting in December, seeds are planted in pots and then they grow to young trees during the next few months. During growing to seedlings, they are watered, weeded, shaded, and after 5 to 8 months they are ready to be planted out. The work in the nursery is primarily done by women, who therewith earn a little but important income. At the beginning of the rainy season, the seedlings are planted to the mountain sides and hills.
Afforestation requires significant preparation of the afforestation area. The area, typically eroded hills or mountain sides with few bushes and shrubs only, are prepared by construction of terraces, digging trenches, planting holes and linings against washing out during the rainy season.
construction of terraces on sloppy hill
planting holes and trenches behind the terraces
farmers work collaboratively on the preparation of their hill
The seedlings are brought to the afforestation sites in strenuous transports. As much as possible, transportation is with vehicles, then by donkeys and when the terrain becomes too steep on women's backs.
The afforestation takes place in the months of July and August, during the rainy season. Afforestation are collaborative work of villages, forest organizations, or women associations. Seedlings are planted to the mountain sides and hills, where they have to survive until the next rainy season without any further water (it is not possible to water millions of seedlings on sloppy hills with watering cans).
Protection of afforestation
Afforestation areas are preservation areas. The villages, which offer the mountains and hills for afforestation, also agree to protect the areas against interference of domestic animals, partly by engaging guards. So the seedlings and the vegetation grow well. Typically, the afforestation area is protected for 5 years. Then protection is no longer necessary, the farmers which by then benefit greatly from the forests care for the forests by their own interest.